Hints on Singing

発行:1894 著者:Garcia, Manuel Patricio Rodriguez.

Hints on Singing. New York: Schuberth & Co., 1894.
ガルシア89歳の時の書。最も多くの著者たちに引用される。
マリリン・ホーンは、この書を徹底的に読み込んで勉強し、自分はガルシアの弟子であると公言した。

HINTS ON SINGING
PART  I.
1. OBJECTS OF VOCAL STUDY.
2. DESCRIPTION OF THE VOCAL APPARATUS.
3. RESPIRATION (BREATHING).
4.SOUND (RESONANCE).
5.THE SINGING VOICE-REGISTERS.
6. DESCRIPTION OF FEMALE VOICES.
7.DESCRIPTION OF MALE VOICES.
8. TIMBRE.
9. PREPARATION FOR EMITTING THE VOICE
10a. THE ATTACK OF VOCAL SOUNDS.
10b. FEMALE VOICE. — THE CHEST REGISTER
11. THE MEDIUM REGISTER.
12. THE HEAD REGISTER.
13. MALE VOICE — GENERAL TREATMENT.
14. FAULTS IN VOICE PRODUCTION.
15. FATIGUE OF THE VOCAL ORGANS.
16. STUDY OF AGILITY.
17. THE STUDY OF EXERCISES BY ALL VOICES.
19. BLENDING THE REGISTERS.
20. THE PORTAMENTO.
21. BREATHING IN EXERCISES.
22. PREPARATION OF THE SCALE.
23. PRACTICE OF MAJOR SCALES.
24. PRACTICE OF MINOR SCALES.
25. RUNS OR “DIVISIONS.”
26. EXERCISES ON LIGHT AND SHADE.
27. ARPEGGIOS.
28. CHROMATIC SCALES AND PASSAGES.
29. THE “MESSA DI VOCE,” REPEATED NOTES
30. SMALL (OR GRACE) NOTES.
31. THE SHAKE OR TRILL.

PART   II.
32. SINGING COUPLED WITH WORDS.
33. MECHANISM OF THE VOWELS.
34. MECHANISM OF THE CONSONANTS.
35. STEADINESS OF SOUNDS COUPLED WITH WORDS.
36. DISTRIBUTION OF WORDS ON NOTES.
37. PHRASING.
38. BREATHING PLACES.
39. PREPARATION OF A PIECE.
40. TIME AND MARKS.
41. ORNAMENTS AND CHANGES.
42. THE CADENZA.
43. EXPRESSION.
44. RECITATIVE.
45. ON THE VARIOUS STYLES.

引用

1894年「歌手の真の口は、咽頭と考えられなければならない。」(Garcis、ヒント、前掲書、12)

Garcia describes the inspiratory phase of the appoggio technique in this way;
ガルシアは、次のようにappoggioテクニックの吸気局面を記述する;
In the first attempt to emit a sound, the diaphragm flattens itself, the stomach slightly protrudes, and the breath is introduced at will by the nose, by the mouth, or by both simultaneously.
音声を発する最初の試みにおいて、横隔膜は平らになり、胃はわずかに突き出る、そして、息は口から、鼻から、または両方同時に自由に導入される。
During this partial inspiration, which is called abdominal, the ribs do not move, nor are the lungs filled to their full capacity, to obtain which the diaphragm must and does contract completely.
この局部的な吸気(それは、腹式であると言われる)の間、肋骨は動かないし、肺は全容量に満たされない。そしてそれは横隔膜が完全に、収縮させなければならず、収縮するのを達成するためである。
Then, and only then, are the ribs raised, while the stomach is drawn in.
その後で、その後でのみ肋骨は上昇する、と同時に胃は中に引き寄せられる。
This inspiration — in which the lungs have their free action from side to side, from front to back, from top to bottom — is complete, and is called thoracic or intercostal.
この吸気 ― 肺は左右、前後、上下に自由に活動する ― は、完全で、胸式呼吸或は肋間呼吸と言われる。
If by compression of any kind the lower ribs are prevented from expanding, the breathing becomes sternal or clavicular.
いかなる種類の圧縮によっても、より低い肋骨の拡大が妨げられるならば、呼吸は胸骨呼吸であるか鎖骨呼吸になる。

©Takanori Yamamoto